Admixtures should be thoroughly dispersed throughout the concrete by efficient mixing to avoid inconsistency of effect and resulting problems of concrete finishing. The possibility of secondary or indirect effects due to admixtures should be considered. The following admixtures may be used.

  • a) Water reducing. These may be used to increase consistence and reduce the water content otherwise required in the concrete base or screed material. Some types can also entrain a small quantity of air and cause retardation of concrete setting and thus delay finishing.

The time and amount of protection may be reduced by employing any of the following:

  • a) an increased cement content (for base slabs only);
  • b) cement with early strength development;
  • c) admixtures to reduce the water/cement ratio;
  • d) admixtures to accelerate setting and hardening;
  • e) heated materials in concrete (for base slabs only);
  • f) thermal blankets.

NOTE For further information on these points, which cannot be quantified briefly, see [9]. Unless heated enclosures and/or heated materials are used it can be preferable to delay operations until the weather is warmer.

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